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Full text of "Industrial study"

FL3 
Alachua 

G142 
33 

1969 

c.2 



COMPREHENSIVE 
PLAN 

REPORT 



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INDUSTRIAL STUDY 




DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT - GAINESVILLE , FLORIDA 



NDUSTRIAL STUDY 



Planning Division, Department of Community Development 
Gainesville, Florida 
December, 1969 



Prepared by the City of Gainesville under Contract with the 
Florida Development Commission. The preparation of this re- 
port was financed in part through an urban planning grant from 
the Department of Housing and Urban Development, under the 
provisions of Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, as amended, 



CITY COMMISSION 

Dr. V/alter Murphree, Mayor -Commissi oner 
Neil Butler 
Courtland Collier 
Perry C. McGriff, Jr. 
Ted Williams 

PL AN BOARD 

Dr. Clayton Curtis, Chairman 

Harold Bedell 

Thomas Coward 

Dr. Clark Hodge 

Sam Holloway 

Jack Rutledge 

Harold Walker 

CITY MANAGER 

B. Harold Farmer 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 

Norman J. Bowman, Director 
Audrey Wi I lingham, Secretary 

PLANNING DIVISION 

Richard Kilby Assistant Director 

Thomas Greenwood Planner I 

William Neron Planner I 

V. Miles Patterson Planning Aide II 

Gary E. Wolford Planning Aide 

Jan Weaver Planning Aide I 

Louie Wilson Planning Aide I 

Mary Jo Boggs Clerk Typist 



TITLE: 
AUTHOR: 

SUBJECT: 

DATE: 

LOCAL PLANNING AGENCY: 

SOURCE OF COPIES: 



HUD PROJECT NUMBER 



SERIES NUMBER: 



Industrial Study 

Planning Division, Department of Community 
Development, Gainesville, Florida 

Existing Industrial Land Use and Zoning 
Preliminary Industrial Land Use Plan 

December, 1969 

Gainesville City Plan Board 

Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and 
Technical Information, Washington, D. C. 

Department of Community Development, 
Municipal Building, Gainesville Florida 32601 

HUD Regional Office Library, Region III, 
645 Peachtree Seventh Building, 
Atlanta, Georgia 30323 

Florida P-54 

8 (of 12) 



NUMBER OF PAGES: 



ABSTRACT: 



Review of modern standards of industrial development, 
Analysis of type of industry by land area, building 
area and number of employees. Analysis of the 
characteristics of various industrial districts in 
the Urban Area, including zoning breakdown. 
Review of the goals of industrial development. 
Presentation of a proposed industrial land use 
plan for the Gainesville Urban Area. 



in 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

ABSTRACT iii 

LIST OF TABLES v\ 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS vii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

SUMMARY 2 

INDUSTRIAL PROMOTION AND/OR THE SELECTION OF NEW INDUSTRY . . 4 

Factors Influencing Industrial Location 9 

The City Service Package As Rated by Survey Firms .... 12 

Industrial Development Concepts 16 

Compatibility with Surrounding Uses 17 

Traffic Flow and Control 18 

Industrial Grouping 18 

Industrial Parks and Districts 18 

Industrial District Standards 22 

Controls in Planned Industrial Districts 26 

EXISTING INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 29 

Introduction 29 

An Overview of the Existing Industrial Land Use 30 

in the Gainesville Urban Area 

Industrial Zoning in the Urban Area 37 

Analysis of the Major Industrial Districts in the Gainesville Urban . . 42 

Area 

Industrial District "A" 42 

Industrial District "B" 42 



IV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
(Continued) 

Page 

Industrial District "C" 53 

Industrial District "D" 57 

Industrial District "E" 62 

Industrial District "F" 68 

Scattered Industrial Sites 72 

PROPOSED INDUSTRIAL LAND USE PLAN 77 

Introduction . . . . „ 77 

Summary of the Plan Recommendations 78 

District A 79 

District B 80 

District C 80 

District D 80 

District E 81 

District F 82 

Scattered Industrial Sites 83 

General Plan Recommendations 83 

APPENDIX A- Sources 86 

APPENDIX B - Physiographic Suitability 87 



LIST OF TABLES 

Page 

I. Ranking of Deciding Industrial Location Factors . . . .' 10 

II. Ranking of Location Determinates 11 

III. Demand for Non-Utility Service 13 

VI. Importance of Transportation Facilities to New Industries 14 

V. Industrial Demand for Water and Sewer Facilities for Process Use .... 14 

VI. Factors Favoring Grouped Concentrations Over Strips of Scattered ... 19 
Industrial Sites 

VII. Survey of Industrial Characteristics, Gainesville Urban Area 1967-68 . . 34 

VIII. Existing Land Use and Zoning of Industrial Areas in the Gainesville . . . 36 
Urban Area 

IX. Industrial Development by Zoning Category 38 

X. Permitted Uses in Existing Industrial Zoning Classifications Gainesville . 40 
Urban Area 

XI. Land Use in Industrial Districts 41 

XII. Existing Zoning and Land Use - Industrial District "A" 43 

Existing Zoning and Land Use - Industrial District "B" 49 

Existing Zoning and Land Use - Industrial District "C" 55 

Existing Zoning and Land Use - Industrial District "D" 59 

Existing Zoning and Land Use - Industrial District "E" 63 

Existing Zoning and Land Use - Industrial District "F" 69 

Scattered Industrial Land Use and Zoning 76 



VI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Illustration Page 

Alachua County, Gainesville Urban Area and City vii? 

of Gainesville 

Sketch Study Planned Industrial Subdivision 23 

Chart I 31 

Existing Industrial Land Use 32 

Existing Industrial Zoning 39 

Existing Land Use, District A 44 

Existing Land Use, District B 50 

Existing Land Use, District C 56 

Existing Land Use, District D 60 

Existing Land Use, District E 64 

Existing Land Use, District F 70 

Proposed Industrial Land Use Plan 85 

Generalized Soil Suitability 89 



VII 



_J 




□ 



'8ANIZINO AREA 



A L 




INTRODUCTION 

The desire for a better balanced tax base, and the desire to provide ample 
and varied employment opportunities are but two, albeit very important, reasons why 
most communities today are promoting industrial development. To these could be 
added an undefinable urge to promote "growth", which is generally equated with 
"progress", and in turn prosperity for all who benefit from an expanding economic 
base . 

Throughout the country local governments are largely dependent on property 
taxes for revenue. Industrial development very frequently pays a larger tax dollar 
than it requires in services, thus helping to ease the burden of the other taxpayers, 
such as the homeowner. This helps to account for the more than 8,000 area devel- 
opment organizations recently cited by a federal official . It is also particularly 
important to communities such as Gainesville, where the economic base is largely 
founded on public institutions which pay no property taxes. 

Ample employment opportunities are an obvious community goal today -- 
particularly since minority groups and the poor have focused the public spotlight 
on their dissatisfaction with the lack of such opportunity. This lack in turn dic- 
tates a need for a variety of job opportunities including those in the industrial 
sector. 

Industrial development in general is the focus of this study. To be speci- 
fic, it is the intent of this report to discuss the recent trends in industrial develop- 
ment; to examine the existing industrial development of the community, with 
particular reference to its land use; to set forth certain limited objectives for 
future development in the industrial sector; and finally, to propose a plan to 

guide future growth in industrial land use. 

-1- 



SUMMARY 
The purpose of this report is to analyze the existing industrial land use in 
the community and to prepare a preliminary industrial land use plan based on the 
findings of this and previous reports. The following is a summary of pertinent 
findings and recommendations of this report. 

1 . There are now approximately 3,023 acres of land zoned for industrial 
in the Urban Area. Of this total about 2,081 is zoned manufacturing 
industrial (MP), and approximately 942 acres is zoned local service 
industrial (MS). 

2. Of the total land zoned approximately 2,405 acres currently is 
vacant. This is approximately 79 1/2% of the total. 

3. Approximately 89 acres of industrial or wholesale/warehouse type 
land use was found in areas zoned some classification other than 
industrial . 

4. There is an estimated total of 481 acres of industrial land use in the 
Urban Area. Of this approximately 354 acres is located in the in- 
dustrial districts. 

5. The industry in this area is characterized by a low intensity of land 
coverage, a low employee per acre ratio, and has an average lot 
size of approximately 2 acres per use. The actual uses themselves 
cover a broad range of types from very light industry to some very 
heavy industries. They also include many uses which are permitted 
in non- industrial districts such as light wholesaling operations. 

-2- 



6. It is recommended in the plan that recognition be given to the dif- 
fering characteristics and locational needs of light versus heavy in- 
dustry and to purely wholesale and/or warehousing types of uses. 

7. A total of 2897 acres are recommended for industrial in the proposed 
industrial land use plan. 

8. Approximately 2261 acres of vacant industrial land is included in the 
plan recommendation, although a small portion of this would be 
classified as unbuildable without extensive site preparation, and 
some of the area would include land which would need some site 
preparation or may have soil characteristics which dictate a low 
intensity utilization. 



-3- 



INDUSTRIAL PROMOTION AND/OR THE SELECTION OF NEW INDUSTRY 

Economic growth means change. Substantial expansion in the industrial 
sector inevitably means changes in the present composition or character of the 
community and in the structure and direction of growth in the future. It is 
essential for the community leaders to assess these forces of change and 
exercise the selectivity desired to bring about the type of future community 
that is desired by the people. 

Not all growth can be controlled, or even anticipated. Nor can it 
always be coaxed to happen when wanted. But a certain degree of selectivity 
can and should be exercised in the area of encouraging new industries from 
outside to locate in the community. The following comments taken from the 
earlier Economic Base Study are pertinent in this regard*. 

"Growth for growth's sake alone can be a mixed blessing. Take for 
example growth in the manufacturing sector. Earlier it was pointed out that 
manufacturing based economies generally have a relatively high wage structure 
This does not mean however, that all manufacturing is good and should be 
encouraged to locate in the community. Many manufacturing concerns can 
create a drain greater than its contribution to a community. Certain industries 
create special problems due to the obnoxious odors or pollution or by their 
appearance. Or they may pay a wage which ultimately will lower the overall 
average of the community. 



-4- 



"Therefore, encouragement of industry should be on a selective basis 
concurrent with the desires and wishes of the people of the community. Certainly 
there are two sides to most issues. An industry, even though paying relatively 
low wages, might be just what is needed if there is a serious unemployment, 
or under employment problem in the area. An industry that is aesthetically 
unpleasant could bring a large return to the community by exporting its products 
and paying high wages. 

"From all indications the county and/or particularly Gainesville 
can afford to be somewhat selective if it should choose to actively pursue 
a program to recruit new industry. The high proportion of workers in government, 
primarily for the University, provides a very stable base from which to work . 
The fluctuations attendent to the business cycle are felt less in this atmosphere 
than in a community dominated by private industry. This does not mean the 
community can be complacent. Indeed, if an enrollment ceiling at the 
University were enforced, there could eventually come a time when growth 
would slow to a crawl . 

"The first prerequisite for continued expansion is that it must be in the 
base sector i.e., it should provide either goods or services for export to bring 
money into the county from the outside. The principal industries of the base 
type are manufacturing, resource extractors, such as mining or oil wells, the 
export of agricultural products, tourism and in the case of Gainesville, the 
University. 



-5- 



"It has been suggested by many people that because of the University, 
the community should be a prime candidate for the development of a research 
complex similar to the Harvard - M.I.T. area or the Los Angeles, California 
Tech complex. The influence of the medical center has been successful in 
attracting the new Veteran's Hospital, which incidentally became one of the 
County's largest employers, and reportedly was attractive to several medically/ 
oriented industries contacted by a recent promotion trip to several larger 
cities in the north. There also appears to be a very good chance that a 
hospital to treat persons with serious burns will locate in Gainesville because 
of the medical center. 

"There are some very serious considerations which should be taken into 
account before relying too heavily on the University to create an atmosphere 
which will attract the desired industry. First of all there is competition. 
Probably there are few communities in the country with a reasonably large 
college which do not have the same idea of its attraction to private industry. 
Secondly, the basic resources of a University are its pool of "brain power" 
and its basic research. The brain-power can be more easily transported to 
the industry than vice versa, and despite its academic excellence, the 
University of Florida is a state supported institution which very often cannot 
afford the high cost of pure research in deference to their role of teaching. 

"Research activities, if they can be attracted, are normally considered 
a welcome addition to the community. They not only tend to provide an 
economic stimulus, but are socially and culturally very acceptable. 

-6- 



At the same time reasearch industries can be far less demanding on community 
resources in terms of city services and social welfare needs. The research 
industry, in short, is generally a desirable addition to the economy of a 
community if it can be established. 

"While selection of the type of manufacturing industries should be 
dictated by the overall goals and objectives of the community, there are 
several considerations which generally serve as guidelines. One is that 
it should be in a growth industry. Some that are considered generally 
prospective growth industries are: electrical machinery, instruments, 
transportation equipment, plastics, and to a somewhat lesser degree chemicals 
and fabricated metals. There is also a large list of industries sometimes called 
exotic whose potential has not yet been fully determined. These include, 
for example, maser and laser applications, transistors, micro-miniaturization 
and many others. As mentioned earlier, one local industrialist pointed out 
that any type of small assembly operation would probably be quite successful 
here. 

"Another desirable characterization generally sought in new industries 
is relatively high wages. However, it must be pointed out that there apparently 
is no pool of highly skilled workers in this area who could command higher 
manufacturing wages. Other characteristics desired are: efficient, competitive 

4 

firms; those which export most of their product (and thus have the greatest 
multiple effect on the economy); firms which have a Relatively stable employment 
cycle; generally manufacturers of non-durable goods or light consumer durables; 
firms which will help maintain a diversity in the overall economy, firms with 
high research and development characteristics, and finally, firms which are 

-7- 



soundly financed and have good management, and are likely to be a 
productive addition to the community. 11 



-8- 



Factors Influencing Industrial Location 

Assuming that the active pursuit of more industry is a desired objective 
(an assumption not supported or refuted in this study for lack of sufficient 
evidence; for while on the one hand there appears to be a fairly active 
program promoting new industry, there is evidence also of some sentiment 
that the community should remain basically a "college town"), it is first 
necessary to examine those factors which influence the decision to locate 
an industry in a given community. The community can then act to emphasize 
those points most strongly in its favor in wooing those prospective industries 
it finds suitable. 

Studies have shown that what a community can offer an industry 
generally is not a primary factor in its decision to locate in a given region, 
but it may be a primary reason for that industry to locate or re-locate in a 
given community of that region. An excellent comprehensive study concerning 
the effects local government has upon industrialization and vice-versa was 
prepared by Ruth L. Mace of the Institute of Government of the University 
of North Carolina. The study reports an actual relationships among 126 
new plants, industrial development organizations, and municipal governments 
in ten representative, small to medium sized American cities, (ranging from 
15,000 to 200,000 inhabitants). Although these cities were in North Carolina, 
in many respects they are typical of other cities of similar size in the Southeast 
and other less heavily industrialized regions of the United States where new 
industry is avidly sought after. Specific references to facts in this section 
of the report are from this source unless otherwise indicated. 

-9- 



The study reveals the following results of a survey of plant 

executives and industrial development officials ranking of deciding 

industrial location factors. 

Table 1 

Ranking of Deciding Industrial Location Factors 

Rank All Survey Plants Plants Originating Industrial Development 

Outside City Officials 



1 


Markets 


Markets 




Labor 


2 


Labor 


Labor 




Markets 


3 


Owner's Home 


Transportation 




Character of City 


4 


Transportation 


Suitable site 




Water and Sewer 


5 


Raw materials 


Raw materials 




Sui table building 


6 


Suitable site 


Character of Ci 


ity 


Transportation 


7 


Suitable building 


Suitable bui Iding 


Suitable site 




for rent 


for rent 







8 
9 
10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



Character of City 
Water and sewer 



Water and Sewers Local tax climate 

Special inducements Owner's home city 



Special inducements Police and Fire 

protection 

Local tax climate Local tax climate 



Police and Fire 
protection 

Local government 
reputation 

Planning and Zoning 



Local government 
reputation 

Planning and Zoning 



Police and Fire 
protection 

Local government 
reputation 



Source: 2 (*Nore: See # 2 in Appendix A - Sources) 

-10- 



As the table indicates the factors mentioned most frequently by 
plant executives were: 1) proximity to markets, 2) labor consideration, 
3) owner's home city and 4) transportation. Of these, only labor and 
market were also mentioned by development officials whose job it is to 
promote industry. In addition, the next two factors considered very 
important by the latter, i.e., the character of the city and water and 
sewer availability, were down the list of the plan executives. 

Generally speaking, the primary considerations in any rationally 
arrived at location decision are economic. A well managed business 
seeks to "maximize profit" and "minimize costs". Fundamental to these 
goals, and without question the primary determinants of location are 
such elements as markets, labor, raw materials, and transportation 
costs. The city and its services are among the secondary factors. 



Table 11 



Ranking of Location Determinants 



Factors not 
controlled by 
Local Government 



Factors Directly 
Controlled by Local 
Government 



Factors Partially 
Controlled or 
Influenced by 
Local Government 



Owner's home city 



Labor considerations 



High quality police 
and fire protection 

Protection locally 
available 



Proximity to markets Planning and zoning 

Proximity to raw materials protection 



Character of city - 
general appearance 

Educational and 
cultural facilities, 
adequate housing 

Special inducements 



-11- 



Availability of Local governmental Transportation - 

suitable bui Iding reputation for railroads, highways, 

for rent efficient management etc. 

Favorable local 
tax climate 

Ample water supply 
of good quality and/or 
good sewage disposal 
faci lities. 



Source: 2 

The North Carolina study reveals that firms concerned with some 
government activity in their location choice include a high percentage 
of "desirable" plants with out-of-city origins. These plants are the 
large employers with substantial capital investments. Electrical machinery 
and food plants were found to be more interested in municipal facilities 
than the sample average as contrasted with furniture, lumber and wood 
industries which show a below average interest in these services. This 
may be due in part to the fact that transportation costs are not a primary 
concern of the the former because of smaller products and light weight 
raw materials, but are to the latter. 

The City Service Package as Rated by Survey Firms 
Among the factors listed as most important by plant executives, 

two elements only partially controllable by local government - highway 

transportation and character of the city - appeared of greater significance 

than any purely municipal service. Conversely, city officials rated water 

-12- 



and sewer utilities (ranked ninth by industry executives) second in 
importance as attractions to industry. Among the non-utility services 
of fire protection, police protection, refuse collection, and planning 
and zoning, fire protection shows clearly in the following table as the 
single non-utility service of greatest consequence to the surveyed plants, 
This is particularly true for smaller firms whose fire insurance rates are 
a substantial cost item. 

Table 111 
Demand for Non-Utility Services 



Service Essential Desirable Unimportant 

Fire protection 72.6% 25.0% 2.4% 

Police protection 33.9% 60.5% 5.6% 

Refuse collection 31.4% 30.6% 33.0% 

Planning and 

zoning 16.5% 40.5% 43.0% 

Source: 2 

Services relating to traffic and transportation facilities were among 
the survey firm's most important considerations in site location choice, 
ranking fourth among the 14 major location determinants for the sample 
as a whole and third for plants originating outside the city. The following 
fable shows the relative importance of various forms of transportation. 

-13- 



Table IV 

"Importance of Transportation Facilities to New Industries" 

Percent of Respondents indicating facilities. . 

Service Essential Desirable Unimportant 

Highways 85.6% 11.9% 2.5% 

Railroads 37.9% 30.2% 31.9% 

Airport 37.9% 41.4% 20.7% 

Public 

Transportation 7.6% 43.2% 49.2% 

Source: 2 

The North Carolina Study concluded that while the basic utilities 
of water and sewage disposal are undoubtedly essential to most industries, 
only in unusual cases were they conscientiously or consciously considered 
in the location decision making process. 

Table V 

"Industrial Demand for Water and Sewer Facilities for Process Use" 

Percent of Respondents indicating facilities 
Service Essential Desirable Unimportant 

Water 

Supply 44.2% 15.0% 40.7% 

Pressure 26.8% 21.4% 51.8% 

Sewage Disposal 56.1% 25.4% 18.4% 



Source: 2 



-1 



Local taxes was found to play an Important part in location decisions 
even though not ranked highly relative to other factors. More than one- 
third of the plants surveyed indicated the desire to be located near the 
city, but not in it. Most of these admitted that avoidance of city taxes 
was an important factor in this preference. Approximately one out of five 
of the surveyed firms preferred not to pay its own way. Most of the plant 
executives who reported such reluctance represented medium sized or large 
firms from outside community, many of these being branches of national 



concerns. 



On the questions of who should pay for outside utility line extensions 
and what the rate charges should be for industries beyond the corporate 
limits, most industrialists felt that the city should bear the full cost of 
utility line extensions to desirable industries, and that the city should 
charge no more to outside users than to in-city firms. 

The attitudes of industry toward the idea of city annexation were 
generally found to be hostile. Among the survey plants the attitudes of 
respondents in nine firms, recently annexed (or scheduled for annexation) 
to five of the cities, were considered representative of the attitudes of the 
total sample toward location inside versus outside city limits. Three firms 
strongly favored annexation, four were highly displeased by this action, and 
two reserved judgment. . Two of the three firms favoring annexation had 
anticipated it. The two firms reserving judgment were not yet annexed 
and preferred to withhold judgment until the pros (better police and fire 

protection, etc.) and cons (higher taxes) could be weighed after annexation 
had occurred. - 15- 



The North Carolina study, as was implied previously, may not totally 
represent the industrial- local government relationships in the Gainesville 
Area. However, the results of the study indicate a general lack of planning, 
preparedness, and sense of direction towards industrial development by the 
communities studied. 

As was indicated earlier, smaller cities, although not providers of 
the primary factors which influence industrial location decisions in a given 
region, can play an important role in attracting "desirable" industry to locate 
in their community. 

Industrial Development Concepts 



The discriminating industrialist today looks for certain desired characteristics 

in potential sites and is not willing to accept the unwanted and/or undesirable 

locations to which industry was relegated in the past. Furthermore, because 

of the active competition he has come to expect to get what he wants so long 

as it is reasonable. What does he look for in a site? One authority has said: 

'Modern trends in plant location have resulted in an increasing 
demand for locations away from areas of traffic congestion, non- 
existent parking, and cramped sites. Management wants more space 
for funcational designed one-story plants, off-street parking and 
loading docks, employee cafeterias and recreational facilities, 
and future expansion. Furthermore, management wants to be 
spared the problems and delay attendant upon finding and de- 
veloping raw sites and in arranging for utilities. Management 
also wants to be assured that its investment will be protected and 
that it will have compatible neighbors." 



-16- 



Compatibility with Surrounding Uses 

Of particular importance in the location of industry is compatibility 
with its neighbors. This is important not only from the standpoint of good 
land use planning by the community, but is desired by the industry itself, 
as the above quotation points out. 

Probably the most important relationship is between industry and 
residential land uses, for studies have shown that improperly planned or 
located industry can have a distinct blighting influence on residential 
properties. On the other hand with good planning and design the two 
uses can live in relative harmony at close proximity to each other. This 
is especially true with modern plants which create little or no disturbance 
of any kind, air pollution, noise, odor, etc. outside of their own building. 
With such plants the main concern generally is with conflicting traffic. 

Several design concepts have evolved as a result of the basic conflict 
between industry and residential. The first of these is buffering or insulation 
between the two uses. This can be achieved by: 

□ Physical barriers of green belts or walls separating 
the uses; 

□ Separation by other major physical barriers such 
as thoroughfares, parks or streams — particularly 
with residential backlotting to such barrier; and, 

D Transitional uses in between which are more com- 

patible with the use on each side, such as offices, 
or multiple family districts. 

In terms of the total industrial picture of the community the clustering 

of industry in parks or separate districts has the effect of minimizing the 

amount of border which is exposed to possible conflict, as opposed to 

-17- 



scattered and strip development. 

Traffic Flow and Control 
Industrial traffic should be kept separate from residential traffic. This 
means that to keep conjestion to a minimum industrial districts should be adjacent 
to major thoroughfares. In addition, it is considered good practice to separate 
truck tiaffic fi om automobile traffic in the design of industrial parks. 

Industrial Grouping 
One of the basic principles of industrial development today concerns the 
grouping of such uses in homogenous, exclusive districts. One good reason 
foi rliis has already been outlined - i.e., it minimizes the potential conflict 
with incompatible uses on a community wide basis. 

Perhaps more importantly, studies have concluded in case after case that 
the modern industrialist prefers the exclusive district arrangement. Permitting 
hr.mrs and commercial uses in industrial districts can easily jeopardize the 
atnuctiveness and appeal of that district to an industrialists. 

Industrial Parks and Districts 

Because they embody most of the principles of good design desirable in 
industrial development, industrial parks are discussed more fully in the following 
section. While normally one thinks of a single ownership or management 
subdivision when discussing industrial parks, the same concept can be applied 
to industrial districts with several owners, provided some coordination is involved, 

A planned industrial district or industrial park can be described as a 

suitably located tract of land subdivided and promoted for industrial use. The 

planned industrial parks provides for a "community" of industries located on a 

-18- 



large site; comprehensive physical planning and development for the entire 
tract; utilities, streets, and other essential services; specific industrial uses, 
sometimes guided by performance standards; and if zoning is inadequate, 
restrictive covenants running with land sales to control plant design, smoke 
and odors, landscaping, employee parking, and other features. Table VI 
which follows provides a comparison of the advantages of grouped concentrations 
of industry in districts and the disadvantages of strip or scattered industrial uses. 



Table VI 

Factors Favoring Grouped Concentrations Over Strips or 
Scattered Industrial Sites 



Factors 



Effect on Real 
Estate 



Strip and Scattered 
Industrial Development 



Industrial District 
or Park 



Strip industrial development 
usually has a depressing effect 
on contiguous land uses. Con- 
tiguous vacant areas tend to be 
held for speculation in the hope 
of increasing values. The vacant 
lots grow up in weeds, having a 
blighting effect on nearby land 
uses. 

The greater perimeter of strip or 
scattered development increases 
the amount of contiguous area 
subject to fluctuating values 
because of industrial activities. 



Industrial parks or districts 
can segregate themselves 
with a continuous buffer 
strip. They can stabilize 
surrounding uses and make 
the area more attractive 
for other land uses. 



The compact arrangement 
reduces the perimeter 
and makes buffer areas 
more feasible. 



Benefits for 
Industrial Location 



Frequently there is delayed site 
readiness, increasing the time 
lag between the decision to 
locate and the beginning of 
production. 



Immediate site readiness, 
reducing the time lag 
between the decision to 
locate and the beginning 
of production. 



-19- 



Very little site choice 



Higher site development 
costs, discouraging 
development by the 
smaller land users. 



Little investment protection 
against deterioration of 
industrial land or lands 
near the park. 



An atmosphere of isolation 
from other industry. 



Flexibility of site 
choice (i.e., avail- 
ability of several 
alternative sites with- 
in the development.) 

Reduced site develop- 
ment costs for the 
smaller land users 
through economies 
of scale by the 
developer. 

Investment protection 
through convenants 
designed as safeguards 
against deterioration 
of properties in the park, 
and, if well conceived, 
protection for lands near 
the park. This al lows 
the industry to buy less 
land (since it doesn't 
to insulate itself), and the 
land's value is maintained 
or more often, increased 
over the years. 

Nearby industry, business 
and service industries, 
security provision, eating 
and club facilities, joint 
projects among tenants, 
etc. 



Benefits to the 
Community 



Lack of planned, developed 
sites to show prospective 
industries. 



Favorable competitive 
position through avail- 
ability of full serviced 
sites. 



Requires uneconomical extensions Permits more efficient 
of municipal services (water, and economic extension 

sewer, utilities, fire and police of municipal services 
protection, etc.) to serve through concentration of 

scattered industrial development, a number of industries 

in a few specific areas 
rather than scattered 
indiscriminately in widely 
separated locations. 
-20- 



Transportation 



Social 



Provides no real protection 
to industrial development 
and surrounding land uses. 



Increases the number of 
access points of trucks and 
heavy volumes of traffic 
onto major thoroughfares. 
This situation naturally results 
in increased auto accidents, 
not to mention the need for 
more traffic control devices 
in these areas. 

Tends to fragment and erode 
residential areas. 



Provides a real 
measure of control 
over industrial operations 
and prevents undesirable 
development within the 
park. This results in 
sounder land use relation- 
ships and community 
compatibility. 

Provides for limited 
access points onto 
major city thoroughfares. 



Can be designed to blend 
in and complement 
adjacent uses, or at 
least not adversely affect 
such uses. 



Source: Compiled by Department of Community Development, from sources related 
in the Appendix. 

The preceeding table and discussion point out several reasons why industrial 
districts and parks are becoming such a dominant form of industrial development 
in the industrialized areas of the nation. However, the industrial park concept 
is not a panacea for all problems associated with industrialization. There are 
several limitations inherent in the industrial park concept. 

1 . Not suitable to all industry. Certain manufacturing firms such as 
chemical plants and primary metal operations which utilize large tracts 
of land and have high utility requirements usually prefer to buy and 

develop their own acreage in order to minimize overall costs and retain 

-21- 



absolute control of their surroundings. 

2. Loss of identity. Some firms, notably large nationally - known 
companies, may feel that public recognition focuses on the parks as an 
institution rather than on tenants separately. However, many firms 
gain from identitication with an industrial park. 

3. Industry Expansion Problems. Unless more land than is needed 
initially is purchased at the outset, the industrial park occupant may 
have difficulty in expanding at a later date. Although this problem 

is not confined to site in industrial parks, it is a difficult tcsk to induce 
a company to purchase two or three times as. much land as is initially 
needed. 

4. Traffic Problems. Unless carefully situated, comprehensively planned 
and developed, an industrial park can create or add to a community's 
traffic problem, emphasizing the need for cooperative community devel- 
oper planning at the outset. 

Industrial District Standards 

Like any other industrial site development, primary concern must be 

initially directed toward the financing and marketing potential of a planned 

industrial district. Following these considerations must come an analysis of 

locational factors such as existing and planned highway accessibility, rail 

service, airports, utilities, topographic and subsurface characteristics, and 

surrounding environment. 

-22- 



The planned and controlled development of an industrial site is what 
distinguishes an industrial district or park from scattered or strip industrial 
development. Industrial districts in Gainesville generally lack adequate 
landscaping and buffer zones to protect the stability and longevity of surrounding 
land uses. Inadequate building setbacks from major thoroughfares and conspicuous 
power and telephone line arrangements tend also to detract from existing 
industrial district development. 

If future industrial development is to be both a benefit to the community 
and to benefit from its existence in this community, adequate safeguards con- 
trolling future industrial development should be established. The following 
are some of the criteria which should be considered In this regard. 
Flexibility. Probably the single most important consideration in industrial dis- 
trict development is the provision for maximum flexibility. Unlike residential 
subdivisions and shopping centers, land development in industrial districts is 
likely to be slow and erratic. Therefore, having land on the market over long 
periods of time makes prediction of space requirements for individual industries 
highly doubtful . 

The concept of phase development is useful in providing flexibility in 
development through progressive stages. Advantages of this type of approach 
to industrial district development are: 

1) Money tied up in development costs can be held down initially. 

2) Future flexibility in the layout of the remaining acreage is retained. 



-24- 



District Streets 

Widths of rights-of-way for major streets in industrial districts usually 
range from 60 to 120 feet with pavements of 40 to 80 feet. Secondary street 
rights-of-way are usually 50 to 80 feet with pavements of 30 to 60 feet in 
width, depending upon the size of the district and the anticipated traffic flow. 
In small to medium size development 33 to 40 feet pavements on 60 feet rights- 
of-way are most popular. However, it is necessary to prohibit on-street parking 
en the narrower pavements. 

Street grades should be kept to a minimum, preferably below five percent. 
To the extent that it is possible, access streets should be laid out parallel to 
finished countours, thereby eliminating unnecessary grades and permitting 
parked trucks to stand on level ground. 

The layout of district stieets should avoid street intersections forming acute 
angles which form odd-shaped lots that may prove difficult to market and result 
in less efficient traffic movement. Intersection corners should be rounded 
sufficiently to permit tractor-trailer rigs to negotiate turns without utilizing 
extra traffic lanes. Mr. W. C. Windsor, Jr., the developer of Brook Hollow 
Industrial District in Dallas, recommends that street intersections be paved on 
a 50 foot curb radius at corners and that drive entrances from the street to 
individual buildings be paved on at least a 25 foot curb radius to avoid street 
blockage by turning trucks. 
Utilities. 

Easements for utilities are placed either within street or rail rights-of- 
way or both. It is aesthetically desirable to have power and telephone lines 

brought to the rear of the plant sites. If it is necessary to place power lines 

-25- 



and poles along district streets, one method of softening the appearance of 
the overhead lines is to bury the service lines from poles to individual buildings 
Landscaping. 

Plans for an industrial district should include an overall landscaping 
scheme. This will be essential in attracting the "desirable" well-designed 
plants. Besides being aesthetically pleasing, landscaping has several practical 
functions such as preventing erosion and reducing runoff, screening storage 
yards and parking lots from view, controlling wind and providing shade from 
direct sunlight. It is the developer's responsibility to see that individual site 
plans meet the landscaping requirements set for the entire district. In many 
industrial developments today outside storage is prohibited unless screened. 

Controls in Planned Industrial Districts 
It is to the developer's advantage to impose certain specific performance 
standards on the individual plants to protect neighboring operations within 
the district. The developer may impose these performance standards through 
sales policies, by protective covenants against the land, or by restrictions 
included in individual deeds or lease agreements. Frequently, modern zoning 
ordinances will incorporate many of these provisions, although generally 
speaking, most private parks choose to impose much stricter controls than are 
required by the community. 
Outdoor Storage. 

Most district covenants have restrictions concerning outdoor storage of 
materials and equipment. Some districts do not permit outdoor storage, while 
those permitting it usually require adequate screening by a wall, planting, or 

-26- 



other suitable barrier. 
Site Coverage. 

Many contemporary planned industrial development contain provisions 
specifying the maximum percent of the total area of an individual site that 
may be covered by structures, usually ranging from 25 to 70 percent. Major 
reasons for such restrictions are: 

1) to guard against future overbuilding on sites resulting in cramped 
quarters and traffic congestion. 

2) to allow ample reserve space to accommodate increased parking 
demands on site and not overflowing onto development streets. 

3) to preserve a spacious andattractK/e setting within the development. 
However, where ample building setbacks, side yards, and adequate 

space for employee parking, truck maneuvering and loading are required 
in district covenants, the need for site coverage restrictions is diminished. 
Building Lines. 

Setback lines for buildings fronting on district streets usually range from 
25 to 60 foot. Setbacks from side and rear yards are generally 1 to 30 feet. 
In the case where buildings front on major highways, setbacks vary from 50 
to 200 feet or more to avoid interference between highway and marginal 
traffic. 
Building Construction. 

Most industrial district developers incorporate basic landscaping and 

architectural features in the total design to give the district a specific desired 

character. It is general practice now to require masonry construction, its 

equivalent or better. 

-27- 



Sign Control. 

Sign control is as important in an industrial district as it is in a shopping 
center or other commercial area. A number of contemporary development 
restrictions include covenants governing the location, size, and construction 
of signs identifying buildings within the district. 
Parking. 

Specific off-street parking ratios based either on floor space or total 
employment are not always included in district covenants. Developers 
usually encourage site purchasers to acquire a minimum of 50 percent more 
land area than is needed for the building alone. For example, in the Peachtree 
Boulevard development in Atlanta, the ratio of total land area to building 
area is 3 to 1 . 
Loading Areas. 

Loading docks frequently become eye sores because of storage, accumulation 
of paper and debris etc. . . It is not unusual therefore to require that they be 
placed on opposite sides of a building from the street. Many communities will 
also prohibit such docks adjacent to streets, not only because they are aesthetically 
unpleasing, but to prevent hazardous maneuvering of vehicles in street rights- 
of-way. This problem is diminished where separate roadways are required 
for truck and automobile traffic. 



-28- 



EXISTING INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 
Introduction 

The importance of industry to the economic base of the Gainesville 
area has fluctuated considerably over the years. As was pointed out in the 
Economic Base Study, different industries such as cotton ginning, wood 
products processing, phosphate mining etc., have played important roles 
at various times in the long history of the area. In the more recent past, 
however, governmental institutions, particularly the University, have 
dominated the economy. L«ss than then (10) percent of all resident employees 
were classified under manufacturing in the last two censuses, with another two 
(2) per cent in wholesale trade. Today it is believed that there are only 
seven manufacturing companies in Alachua County which have as many as 
1 00 employees, these being: General Electric, which lies outside the Urban 
Area; Sperry Tube Division, two meat processers, Sunnyland of Gainesville 
and Copeland of Alachua; Ring Manufacturing (Florida Athletic Co.); 
and two wooden crate or box manufacturers, Franklin of Micanopy and American 
Box of Gainesville. Two other fairly large industries, which are estimated to 
have close to but less than 100 employees, are Wood Products and Koppers. 
If the employees of all of the above were added together it is estimated that 
they would number less than two thousand, compared to about 11,000 employees 
at the University of Florida. 

Even though it does not dominate the economy, industrial employment 
should not be considered unimportant. It is in fact generally considered a 
very valuable asset for the reason that frequently manufacturing provides base 



-29- 



employment, i.e., it brings money into the community from the outside, 
and thus has a multiplier effect on the economy. This is particularly true 
of the light industry branch operations of major companies such as Sperry 
and General Electric. 

Much of what is considered "industry" in the community and as treated 
in this study is not actually that in the strictest sense of the term. For 
numerous reasons, including: convenience in covering all land uses in the 
overall "701" study, the manner in which the land use code was broken 
down and similiar land use characteristics; such uses as printing and publishing, 
wholesale, warehousing, construction, certain service industries, and all 
other non-manufacturing industries were considered in this report. 



An Overview of the Existing Industrial Land Use 
in the Gainesville Urban Area 



A preliminary analysis of the basic characteristics of industrial uses was 
completed approximately one year ago. A survey of almost all industry was made 
at that time. Because new data on employment and building area is unavailable, 
and because of insufficient time to redo the survey, the results of this earlier 
analysis is included herein. (See Chart I and Table VII ). 

Several interesting facets with regards to the industrial base of the urban 

area is revealed by this survey. As was noted earlier, much of the so called 

industry is not actually manufacturing. Manufacturing, in fact, accounts for 

only 53% of the developed industrial land, approximately 43% of the building 

area and approximately 44% of the employment. Another very interesting 

characteristic is the very low intensity of development. The overall average 

-30- 



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-31- 




CZ3 



EXISTING INDUSTRIAL LAND USE 

GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA 



^TtTTiTlw 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 



GAINESVILLE . FLORIDA 1068 



lot size is just under 2 acres, while the average building size is approximately 
9,300 square feet. The overall total average land to building ratio was 
approximately 9.6 to 1 . These figures, which do not include two very large 
mining operations in the county, would be low compared to most industrialized 
communities. They probably reflect the fact that many large industrially 
zoned sites are still available for industry in the Urban Area. 

The ratio of employees to developed land is likewise very low except 
for the printing, publishing, and allied industries category. This overall average 
is just under 12 employees per acre, whereas as many as 100 employees per acre 
have been found in many highly industrialized communities. Even with the 
advent of the modern industrial plant in the suburbs, worker densities as much as 
twice that found here are not uncommon. 

Frequently, in considering the impact of a given industry in a community 
a judgment is made as to whether that industry is "light" or "heavy". It might 
be surprising to learn that many of the industries in this area would be classified 
by the latter term. Such industries would include the meat processers, the wood 
treatment plant and perhaps some of the heavier machine shops. By-in-large 
however, the newer larger industries such as Sperry and General Electric would 
be classified as light. No attempt was made in this study to so classify all in- 
dustries, for to do so would require considerable subjective judgments at best. 
It is recommended, however, that recognition be given to the basic differences 
between these types of uses in the proposed plan. 

-33- 



Table VII 

Survey of Industrial Characteristics 
Gainesvi!!e Urban Area 1967-68 

Average Lot Size Aver. Bldg. Area Aver. Number Employees/ 
Category Number (Acres) (sq. ft.) Employees Acre 



Wholesale 


55 


0.83 


7,685 


16.5 


19.9 


Warehousing 


22 


1.98 


7,224 


19.9* 


11.5 


Printing Publish 
& Allied Indust. 


ng 
8 


0.28 


5,047 


24.8 


87.9 


Non-Mfg. 


42 


1.74 


6,422 


18.7 


10.4 


Durable Mfg. 


27 


5.04 


13,924 


36.3 


7.2 


Non-Durable 


13 


3.18 


21,583 


50.6 


20.4 


Average 

• 


— 


2.00 


9,269 


23.4 


11.7 


Totals 


167 


335.14** 


1,519,595 


3,909.0 






Source: Department of Community Development Estimate 

* In several instances this figure includes employees who do not work at any given location, 
but who were arbitrarily assigned to the warehouse location for a work address. 



#* 



Mines not included . 



-34- 



lot size is just under 2 acres, while the average building size is approximately 
9,300 square feet. The overall total average land to building ratio was 
approximately 9.6 to 1 . These figures, which do not include two very large 
mining operations in the county, would be low compared to most industrialized 
communities. They probably reflect the fact that many large industrially 
zoned sites are still available for industry in the Urban Area. 

The ratio of employees to developed land is likewise very low except 
for the printing, publishing, and allied industries category. This overall average 
is just under 12 employees per acre, whereas as many as 100 employees per acre 
have been found in many highly industrialized communities. Even with the 
advent of the modern industrial plant in the suburbs, worker densities as much as 
twice that found here are not uncommon. 

Frequently, in considering the impact of a given industry in a community 
a judgment is made as to whether that industry is "light" or "heavy". It might 
be surprising to learn that many of the industries in this area would be classified 
by the latter term. Such industries would include the meat processers, the wood 
treatment plant and perhaps some of the heavier machine shops. By-in-large 
however, the newer larger industries such as Sperry and General Electric would 
be classified as light. No attempt was made in this study to so classify all in- 
dustries, for to do so would require considerable subjective judgments at best. 
It is recommended, however, that recognition be given to the basic differences 
between these types of uses in the proposed plan. 

-33- 



Table VII 

Survey of Industrial Characteristics 
Gainesvi!!e Urban Area 1967-68 

Average Lot Size Aver. Bldg. Area Aver. Number Employees/ 
Category Number (Acres) (sq. ft.) Employees Acre 



Wholesale 


55 


0.83 


7,685 


16.5 


19.9 


Warehousing 


22 


1.98 


7,224 


19.9* 


11.5 


Printing Publish 
& Allied Indust . 


ng 
8 


0.28 


5,047 


24.8 


87.9 


Non-Mfg. 


42 


1.74 


6,422 


18.7 


10.4 


Durable Mfg. 


27 


5.04 


13,924 


36.3 


7.2 


Non-Durable 


13 


3.18 


21,583 


50.6 


20.4 


Average 

• 


— 


2.00 


9,269 


23.4 


11.7 


Totals 


167 


335.14** 


1,519,595 


3,909.0 






Source: Department of Community Development Estimate 

* In several instances this figure includes employees who do not work at any given location, 
but who were arbitrarily assigned to the warehouse location for a work address. 



** 



Mines not included . 



-34- 



The total amount of land developed for industry and the total amount 
of land zoned for industry (MS, MP) was recalculated for this study. This 
information is present in Table VIII and is discussed in greater detail by dis- 
tricts in a following section. Approximately 392 acres of industrial land use 
is contained within these districts or within areas zoned for industrial, with 
another 89 acres in scattered locations throughout the Urban Area. Slightly 
less than 75% of the existing industrial land use is contained in the industrial 
zoning districts. Not all of the remaining however, is non-conforming as 
certain uses, such as printing and certain wholesale operations are permitted 
in other industrial districts. Table IX which follows gives a break down of 
the location of industrial uses by zoning districts. This table is based on 
the previous land use survey and thus does not add up to the same total as 
shown in Table VIII. It does show however, that at least some of the industry 
is located in areas improperly zoned, was poorly classified, or is il logically 
located with respect to other uses. 



-35- 



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-36- 



Industrial Zoning in the Urban Area 

As Table VIII reveals there are approximately 3,023 acres of land zoned 
for industrial use in the community. Over 2,081 acres of this is zoned MP 
(Manufacturing Industrial) while approximately 942 acres or 31% is zoned 
local service manufacturing, MS. 

While these are the only two categories which are designed for industrial 
uses, it was noted earlier that certain uses discussed in this study are permitted 
in other districts. In addition the industrial zones themselves permit a wide 
variety of non-industrial uses including most commercial uses in the(MS)category. 
It is, in fact, somewhat of a misnomer to call the local service industry MS 
in industrial category because of the many non-industrial uses which are per- 
mitted. These are outlined in Table X . 

Table XI reveals that more than 90% of the MP industrial land is still 
vacant. Of that portion which is developed only 51% is in industrial and 
warehouse /wholesale uses. Almost 63% of the MP district is still vacant. Of 
the land that is developed in the MS districts 59% plus is in industrial and 
wholesale/warehouse uses. The existence of approximately 265 acres of non- 
industrial type uses in the industrial zoned classifications indicates there is 
a great deal of incompatibility and encroachment probably existing in the 
industrial districts. There are many examples of this mixing of uses with per- 
haps industrial district D, which will be discussed in a later section, the worst. 

All of the existing industrial land use including warehousing/wholesaling 

and service industry types of uses is shown on the existing land use map. 

It should be noted that the public and semi-public industrial, which is on this 

map, were not included as industry in the totals of Table VIII. 

-37- 



Table IX 

Industrial Development by Zoning Category 

Acres of 

Zoning Category Industry 

(A) Agriculture 41.56* 

(R-lc) Single Family - High Density 0.50 

(R-2) Multiple Family - Low Density 0.63 

(R-3) Multiple Family - High Density 0.44 

(RM) Mobile Homes Parks 2.62 

(RP) Residential Professional 0.50 

(BR- 1) Central Business District 0.46 

(BR-2) Retail Business 4.96 

(BA-1) Business Automotive - Restricted 5.23 

(BA-2) Business Automotive 7.20 

(BH) Business Highway 4.17 

(MS) Local Service Industrial 210.73 

(MP) Manufacturing Industrial 108.47 



Totals 387.47 

*Note: Most of this area is in mining. 

Source: Department of Community Development Estimates 



-38- 



Table IX 

Industrial Development by Zoning Category 

Acres of 

Zoning Category Industry 

(A) Agriculture 41.56* 

(R-lc) Single Family - High Density 0.50 

(R-2) Multiple Family - Low Density 0.63 

(R-3) Multiple Family - High Density 0.44 

(RM) Mobile Homes Parks 2.62 

(RP) Residential Professional 0.50 

(BR- 1) Central Business District 0.46 

(BR-2) Retail Business 4.96 

(BA-1) Business Automotive - Restricted 5.23 

(BA-2) Business Automotive 7.20 

(BH) Business Highway 4.17 

(MS) Local Service Industrial 210.73 

(MP) Manufacturing Industrial 108.47 



Totals 387.47 

*Note: Most of this area is in mining. 

Source: Department of Community Development Estimates 



-38- 




:XISTING INDUSTRIAL ZONING 

GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA 



.--' : ~ """'-. 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT GAINESVILLE , FLORIDA 1969 



Major Category 
of Land Use 

Residential 



Table X 
Permitted Uses in Existing Industrial Zoning Classifications 
Gainesville Urban Area 



Specific Uses 

Single Family Dwelling 
on existing lots of record. 
Living Units Accessory to 
Permitted Uses. 



Uses Permitted Under . . . 
City MS County MS City MP County MP 



Commercial 



Personal Services x 

Business & Professional x 

Services 

Retail Sales and Services x 

"Conventional" Restaurants 

"Short Order" Restaurants 

"Drive-In" Restaurants x 

Bars, taverns, cocktail 

lounges 

Vendors of Alcoholic 

Beverages x 

Night Clubs x 

Laundries and Dry Cleaners x 

Bakeries (sales) x 

Retail Sales as Accessory 

to Permitted Use 



Wholesale & 
Warehousing 



Lumber and Building Supplies x 

Plumbing Sales and Fabrication x 

Electrical x 

Wholesale x 

Warehousing x 

Trucking x 

Moving x 

Storage & Freight Depots x 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 

X 
X 
X 
X 



Industrial 



Heating & Air Condi 


itioning 










contractors 




X 


X 




• 


Sheet metal works 




X 


X 






Welding 




X 


X 






Bakeries (Mfg) 




X 








Bottling Plants 




X 


X 






Printing 




X 


X 






Manufacturing & Processing 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Research 








X 


X 


Laboratories 








X 


X 


Junk Yards 










X 



Source: City of Gainesville and AlaaS ua County Zoning Ordinances. 

-40- 



Table XI 



Land Use in Industrial Districts 



MP 



MS 



Residential 

Offices & Commercial 

Wholesale/Warehousing 
and Industrial 

Transportantion/ 
Communications 

Public/Semi-Public 

Total Developed 

Vacant Zoned 

Total Zoned 

* Per cent of total zoned. 



24.41 

1.30 

101.13 

62.98 

5.39 

195.27 

1,886.31 
2,081.58 



12.53 

0.67 

51.79 

32.25 
2.76 
100.00% 

(90.62%)* 



64.10 

66.49 

252.78 

17.21 

22.78 

423.36 

518.47 
941.83 



15.141 



15.719 



59.719 



4.061 



5.38 



100.00% 



(62.81%)' 



Source: Department of Community Development Estimates 



-41- 



Analysis of the Major Industrial Districts 
in the Gainesville Urban Area 



The following sections include a district by district analysis of each 
of the major industrial areas of the Urban Area. These districts include both 
all of the land which is currently zoned for industrial as well as a logical 
"rounding-off" of said districts. The land use and zoning codes for each 
of these areas was included earlier in Table \\'J\ Again it should be noted 
with regards to the land use classifications that certain public uses are not 
classified as industrial, even though such uses may in fact have industrial 
characteristics. An example of this would be the City electrical plant, 
and the Department of Public Works compound. 
Industrial District "A" 

Industrial district "A" is located on Waldo Road north of NE 39th 
Avenue. It adjoins the municipal airport and contains the City's industrial 
park within its boundaries. Most of the area, which totals about 1,414 acres, 
lies outside the city limits. 

As is the case in most of the industrial districts in the Urban Area, 
it is predominantly vacant. In total about 1,308 acres or 92.5 per cent of 
the total area is vacant, as shown in the following table. Only 31.5 acres 
has been developed for industry out of 1,258 so zoned. A total of 1,218 
acres of industrially zoned land lies vacant. In fact, of the four or five 
industrial uses in the district most have very ample room for expansion. The 
major industry in both size and employment is Sperry Tube, a Division of 
Sperry Rand. Other uses include a wooden truss maker, a chemical research 
firm, a moving company, and a natural gas facility. 

-42- 



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-43- 



INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT (A) 




COMMERCIAL 
INDUSTRIAL 
fffiffi INSTITUTIONAL 



P sir ap ! i!c Characteristics 

, e generalized Soil Suitability map from the Physiographic Study was 
examined to guage the relative character of this and subsequently examined 
districts from a development standpoint. This map and a summary of the type 
of soils is included in Appendix B for reference. 

This district contains approximately 10 per cent of its total area in soils 
determined to be the best for development (Group 1). Less than 20 per cent 
fo the area is type V with severe limitations on development, primarily due 
to wetness. Type V soils are characterized by poor drainage with water 
standing duiing rainy periods. They have high water table and very poor bearing 
potential. The largest area is classified as Group III soils. These soils too have 
some li itations on development, but these are not prohibitive. Primarily they 
involve wetness due to very poor percolation caused by a layer of "hardpan" 
benecfh the surface. Therefore, while with proper drainage area of Group III 
soils can be developed, the cost of necessary drainage must be a consideration 
of such development. In any case development should be of a low intensity, 
which is a characteristic of most industry in the urban area at present. 

The topography of this district is extremely flat. 
Zoning 

Most of the district is zoned MP or manufacturing industrial. Only 96.6 
acres is zoned for other uses. These include 50 acres for mobile homes, 40 acres 
of agriculture and 6.4 acres of business highway (See table XI 1 1 —A ) . 

-45- 



A total of about 1,258 acres is zoned MP. Of this amount, 1,218 acres, 
or more than 96 per cent is vacant. Less than 32 acres are actually used for 
industrial, wholesale/warehousing uses. The remaining land in the zone is 
mostly right-of-way, with about 3-1/2 acres in residential uses. A large 
portion of the district is owned by the City and improved for an industrial park. 
This park lies adjacent to and north of the municipal airport. 

The MP zoning classification is more restrictive than the MS classification 

in the sense that the only commercial allowed is that which is incidental to 

permitted use. However, all types of industrial uses are permitted. Other 

uses permitted include: 

Any Professional Service Wholesale 

Business Service Warehousing 

Industrial Use Trucking 

Research Moving and Storage 

Laboratories Manufacturing 

The somewhat more exclusive nature of this zoning is better than the other 
classification, but much higher development standards would be an asset to 
potential developers by insuring a more attractive and compatible development 
pattern. 
Transportation 

Circulation to the district is very good. Access to air transportation is immediate 
with the airport adjacent to the district. Access to the freeway is direct via 39th Avenue, 
although it is about 9-1/2 miles away. This is no great problem at present due to the 
low intensity of development along 39th, but this will change over time. Waldo 
Road $R24) provides direct access to points north and south and a direct route to 

-46- 



US 301. The Seaboard Airline Railroad has spur track service to the district. 
Transportation linkage with major residential areas of the city is good, 
especially with the moderate income areas in the northeast section. 
Utilities 

The district is served by water, sanitary sewer and electric utilities. The 
nearest gas main is located at northeast 39th Avenue at northeast 15th Street and 
could be extended into the area if the demand arose. 
Conclusion 

District "A" is the largest single area in the urban area reserved for 
industrial development. It has many assets for industrial growth including the 
availability of all necessary community facilities, at least in the city owned 
industrial park. It also has a choice location with respect to the airport. From 
a physiographic standpoint, however, it does suffer from some limitation due to 
the type of soils present throughout the district. These problems are not insurmountable 
but the intensity of development should remain at a lower level than is possible 
in some areas. One alarming trend in recent months has been the interest shown 
toward the rezoning of this area for other uses which may not be compatible with 
the present district. These requests, spurred on no doubt by the opening of north 
53rd Avenue and the new drag strip north on Montioca Road should be curtailed 
to the extent that they will adversely affect the homogenity of the present district. 
Industrial District "B" 



Industrial district "B" is an area located on Waldo Road south of N. 39th 
Avenue and made up in part by planned industrial subdivisions and partially by 



-47- 



large vacant acreage parcels. Just about every conceivable type of use is 
included within the district boundaries, including a park, "church and mobile 
homes. Altogether, 108 acres out of 274 or 35.3 per cent, are developed , 
but this total includes 25 acres in rights-of-ways (See table XIII - B which 
follows) A total of 166 acres of land zoned MS is still vacant in the district. 

About 33 acres are developed for industrial - wholesale/warehousing 
uses, which is 30.5 percent of the developed land. The industriql - wholesale/ 
warehousing uses include building construction related activities,such as an 
electrical contractor and supply company, a roofing and insulation company, 

plumbing company, tile company, cabinet maker and etc Several 

warehouses have been built in the district. Other uses include a bottling 
plant, welding shop, and a form concrete products company. As the above list 
indicates there are few actual manufacturers in the district. 



-48- 



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-49- 



INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT (B) 




EXISTING LAND USE 



lilij RESIDENTIAL 
COMMERCIAL 



_i_ 



INDUSTRIAL 
v INSTITUTIONAL 



Physic r hie Characteristics 

Most of the land in this district has soils classified in Group III by the 
soils suitability map (See Appendix 3). As was noted earlier this soil type is 
characterized by rather poor percolation and hence standing water can be a problem. 
However, should proper drainage facilities be installed, development is feasible. 
Therr ; i-, however, a band of Group V soils along 39th Avenue. These soils have 
severe limiting characteristics, particularly wetness, which may include muck or 
peat that must be removed before building is possible. There is also a band of Group 
I soil around the intersection of 23rd Avenue and Waldo Road. The topography is 
basically very flat. 

In summary, the physiographic characteristics of the district as a whole are 
such as to present some problems but not to prohibit development except in the 
crea along 39th Avenue. In that area costly site improvement work would be 
necessary before development could proceed. It is estimated that something less 
than 20 percent of the vacant land has group V soils, about 10 percent Group I 
soil and the remaining vacant land has Group III soils. 
Zoning 

All the zoned property in the district is MS. In addition there is a small 
area of public which was included inside the district boundaries because it includes 
a forest service lookout tower and is partially used for storage and maintenance of 
heavy equipment. Another 5.9 acres was categorized under rails. 

The MS category does not provide adequate protection to industrial uses 
and permits the development of incompatible uses, including most types of commercial 

-51- 












There is ample evidence to the effect that a measure of exclusiveness is desired 
by most industrial owners, with non-industrial uses limited to strictly service 
uses to the industry. 

There is a total 166 acres still vacant out of 242 zoned MS in this 
district. It is estimated that all but about 20 percent of this area could be 
developed readily (the rest being in the poor Group V soils). 
Transportation 

Circulation to this district is good . Three major thoroughfares — 23rd 
Boulevard, Waldo Road and 39th Avenue — bound the district. All but the 
latter are presently being widened to four lanes. These thoroughfares provide 
connectors to US highways 301 and 441 and 39th Avenue connects with 1-75, 
but it is about 9 miles to the nearest interchange. The municipal airport lies 
immediately north of the district, and spur tracks of the Seaboard Railroad 
run the length of the area, along Waldo Road. Communication with large 
residential areas, particular the moderate single family area in the northeast, 
is immediate and direct. Service with the large commercial concentration of 
the Central Business District and the major shopping centers is not as direct, 
however, as some of the other districts covered in this report. 
Utilities 

The district is presently served by City water, sewer and electricity. 
Gas mains are now located near the southern edges of the district and at 15th 
Street and 39th Avenue. These could be extended into the area upon demand. 
Conclusion 

This district contains a platted industrial subdivision with lots for future 

development of industry; it has the necessary utilities available and some lots are 

-52- 



lccjf<_J 01 p": ved streets. While there is a small area unsuited for development 
unl cor idc : le sire work is undertaken, the rest of the area consists of 

, od flat sites suitable for a moderate intensity development. Existing 
dcvel m t has established the basic industrial character of the district, although 
s rcial has penetrated into the area, especially on the perimeter roads. 

In lustr! J district "C" 

Ind stria I district "C" contains an area of about 370 acres, 147 acres or 
4 ;;rcent of which is vacant. There are about 130 vacant industrially zoned 
» district, and roughly 1 19 acres developed for either industry or 
I warehousing. In addition, there are some 104 acres developed for 
44 of which are located in the industrially zoned portions of the 
icts. These land use and zoning totals are shown in Table Xlll-C which 
f . 1 1 

The largest industry in terms of land area, is Koppers, which specializes 
in tl 3 treatment of wood or wood preserving. |t is considered a heavy type industry, 
as is an It plant located in the area. There is also a junk or salvage 

r, rator in the district, but by in large the uses are mostly wholesaling'' 

using operations. These include a couple of lumber and building supplies, 
a t. . and storage firm and even an animal hospital. The City has a large 

iic works compound located in the district. 

Total industrial wholesaling/warehousing em^ioyment in the district is 
estimated in excess of 300 persons. 



-53- 



Physiographic Characteristics 

An examination of the soil suitability map from the Physiographic Survey 
indicates that in excess of an estimated 55 percent of the vacant industrial land is 
in Group III, which presents some limitations on building, particularly slow percolation 
and hence wetness during the rainy season. As noted before, this can of course be 
overcome in with properly designed drainage facilities, but which would be an 
additional expense to either the developer or the City at large. An estimated 8 
percent or so of the vacant land is in Group V soils, with severe limitations on 
development. The remaining vacant is in Group I, the best soils in the urban area 
for development. In summary, most of the land is suitable for building with some 
limited problems on a portion of the land. 

The topography of the district is basically flat, presenting no unusual 
difficulties from a building standpoint. 
Zoning 

More than 90 percent of the net area in the district (net area does not 
include public and railroad rights-of-way) is zoned MS, including all but seven acres 
of the net vacant land. The area along the north side of 39th Avenue is zoned for 
commercial which could become incompatible with the industrial uses; but of course, 
commercial is allowed in the MS category. There is also a mobile home park located 
in the middle of the district. As indicated above, there is an estimated 44 acres total 
of non-industrial uses in the district. The area north of 39th Avenue east of 6th Street, 
while zoned MS, is developed with several scattered single family residences of a 
marginal nature. This will hamper future ■ i of this area for industrial purposes. 

-54- 



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-55- 



S| >, t tion 

Tlie district is well located with respect to present rail service as the 
main line tracks bound the district and spur tracks serve portions of the property. The 
nearest point of the district to the terminal at the airport is about 3.5 miles with access 
via 39th Avenue. Freeway access is at present unhampered as most of 39th Avenue is 
sparcely developed from the district to the interchange of 39th and |-75. This distance 
is about 6.8 miles but will become less convenient as more intensive development occurs. 
Access to the central business district and to major residential areas is excellent. 
Utilities 

Electricity, water and sewer services are presently available to the 
district. Gas mains have not been extended to the area as yet, but would undoubtably 
be made available should the demand arise. 
Conclusion 

While there is a few small pockets of marginal land in this district, there 
are many acres of good sites available for uses immediately. The area is well serviced 
vsitli community facilities, has reasonably good access to major transportation links and 
ell located with respect to the homes of many potential employees. Because of the 
cl nactar of existing uses in the northern portion of the district, i.e., existing residential 
development, some changes in zoning in that area to reflect said uses would be in order. 
Industrial District "D" 



Industrial district "D" is perhaps the oldest industrial area in the community, 
It is located just south of the older downtown area of Gainesville, roughly south of the 
of the Depot Avenue. The area is traversed by the two mainline railroad tracks which 
formerly served the city, plus innumerable spur tracks. 

-57- 



The district- is a mixture of old and new buildings, odd shaped parcels and 
many varied uses. About 478 acres lie within the district boundaries, which 
were drawn to encompass most of the industrial zoning of the area and not 
according to other physical characteristics. Of the 478 acres, about 203 acres 
or 42 percent lies vacant. About 1 14 acres are developed in industrial and 
wholesale/warehousing uses, or 41 percent of the total developed land (the latter 
figure including rights-of-way). These are an estimated 39 acres of residential, 
16 acres of commercial and offices, 9 acres of public (mostly in the jail site), 
and 44 acres of transportation, communication and public (mostly in the jail site), 
treatment site) within the developed area. Altogether only 24 percent of the 
total area is now developed for industrial-wholesale/wareshousing uses (See 
the table which follows). 

A survey conducted of the area showed there were 58 industrial wholesale/ 
warehousing concerns in the district with an estimated employment approaching 
one thousand people. The uses are about half warehousing and half manufacturing 
or other industrial . 



-58- 



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-59- 



INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT (D) 



I IL 




EXISTING L 

RESIDENTIAL 
1 .. ,] COMMERCIAL 
HH INDUSTRIAL 



ft.?/v<3 INSTITUTIONAL 






Physiographic Characteristics 

Three basic soil groups are found within this district: Group I, which is 
best for development, Group III which has some limitations and Group VI, which 
are the alluvial and/or man made soils found along the streambed running 
through the district. Only the latter soils are considered to present extremely 
serious limitations on development, butthe Group III soil areas must be improved 
to handle the water problems generally present. The topography of the district 
varies from the steep slopes along Sweetwater Branch to the reasonably flat 
land throughout the rest of the district. 
Zoning 

About 343 of 478 acres located inside the district boundaries is zoned MS. 
This is about 72 percent of the total area. There are parts of the district zoned 
BA-1, RE, R-la and public. In addition, because of the large irregular shape 
of the district it adjoins many other zoning district classifications. 
Transportation 

The district has probably the best rail access of any district in the urban 
area as it is latticed with spur tracks. It is also in perhaps the best position to service 
the wholesale/warehousing needs of the central business district and the University 
of Florida, but not those of other commercial concentrations. Highway circulation 
to the south via South Main is reasonably good, but northbound traffic must pass 
through the Central Business District and is not therefore as good as other districts. 
Utilities 

The district is served by sewer, water, gas and electricity. 



-61- 



Conclusion 

District "D" is a good example of the role to which industry was relegated 
in the past. In stark contrast to the beautiful, spacious industrial parks of 
today, the old industrial districts were often characterized by marginal buildings, 
unpaved streets and parking areas, a mixture of uses and a generally unpleasing 
appearance. The old practice of "pyramid" or "cumulative" zoning, now 
considered obsolete by most zoning authorities, wherein everything was allowed 
in the lowest, generally industrial, district and graduating upward in homogeneity 
to the most exclusive "highest" district, was no doubt one of the root causes of 
the poor character of many industrial areas such as this one. 

Whatever the reason, this district is a heterogeneous mixture of very old 
and some very new buildings, obsolete and sometimes disorganized platting, 
mixed uses and in general is a very uncoordinated district. Still the district has 
vitality as witnessed by the new structures recently constructed, and it has a good 
central location with regards the central part of town. It also contains some good 
sites suitable for development, particular for warehousing or wholesale operations. 
Industrial District "E" 



Industrial district "E" is a triangular shaped area located between 1-75 and 
SW 34th Street and centered approximately on Archer Road. The total area of 
the district is roughly 855 acres, of which an estimated 657 acres, or 76.8 percent 
is vacant. This vacant figure includes roughly 93.5 acres of the land owned 
by a small private airport located in the district. Some 58.7 acres was included 
as developed land for the actual air strip, plus 4.26 acres for the hangers and 
related facilities. (See table Xlll-E). 

-62- 



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-63- 



NDUSTRIAL DISTRICT (E) 




EXISTING LAND USE 



-L 



RESIDENTIAL 
COMMERCIAL 
INDUSTRIAL 



r.K-3 INSTITUTIONAL 



Ph/siographic Characteristics 

Five of the six soil group categories listed in the soil suitability map 
are found in this district. By a very rough estimate it was found that about 
80 percent is classified in Group I, which has the best characteristics for 
de /elopment in the urban area -- from a soils standpoint. A small band of 
Group II soils is found in the Northwest corner of the district — about 10 
percent of the total area. These soils are generally suitable for development 
with the only problems arising from a very shallow profile, i.e., sometimes 
a layer of very hard chert is found 35 - 50 inches beneath the surface. 
Another 2-3 percent has Group III soils which is characterized by poor 
percolation. The small pocket of Group III soils is located in the northwest 
corner of the district. There is an estimated 8 percent or so of the district that 
has soils classified as Group IV, which are basically unsuited for development. 
The soils in this category are located in a low swampy pocket located along 
the freeway about midway between Archer Road and the Williston cutoff. 
Finally, a small pocket of very poor soils (Group V) is found in both the 
extreme northwest corner of the district and near the intersection of Archer 
and NW 34th Street. Together these probably make up no more than one percent 
of the total area. Thus in total something less than 10 percent of the area is 
unsuited for development. The topography of the area is very flat north of Archer 
Road and quite rolling south of Archer Road. Surface drainage is quite good 
in the latter area, but for the most part is to several small sink holes located 
on the site and to the east of SW 34th Street. Areas to the north drain into the 



-65- 



Hogtown basin and thence into Alachua sink. The area is however quite low 
and flat and could result in some drainage difficulties under extreme conditions. 
Zoning 

There is roughly 402 acres of vacant land zoned for industry in the district. 
This is 61 percent of the total vacant land in the district. In addition there is 
about 91 acres zoned for commercial that is vacant, 122 for agriculture, 10 
for mobile homes and another 31 acres in various residential categories. 

Only about 15 acres of the district are actually developed for industry 
and/or wholesale/warehousing uses, and another 152 acres are developed in 
other uses, mainly residential. An industrial subdivision was platted on a 
portion of the area South of Archer Road but to date only three uses, two of 
which share the same building and are related companies, have been constructed 
therein. 
Transportation 

Because of the increasing shift in emphasis to truck transportation vs rail 
and other methods, especially by the desirable light industry, this district has 
potentially one of the best locations-in the urban area. If an interchange were 
constructed at the l-75/Archer Road intersection this would become doubly true 
because of the improved freeway access. The other major roads presently 
serving the district are Archer and SW 34th Street. Presently both are only two 
lane streets but are designated major thoroughfares with potential for improvements, 
These streets give the district reasonably good but notoutstanding access to other 
parts of the community, such as downtown and major residential areas. The 
district does have close and immediate access to the University and Medical 

-66- 



Center, improving greatly its desirability for University and medically oriented 
or related uses. The district is at present served by a spur railroad track which 
runs alongside Archer Road to If 75. The future status of this line is somewhat 
in doubt as only a few existing uses are currently served by the line. The 
district contains a small unpaved airport, but lies about 8 miles from the City 
Airport. 
Utilities 

Electricity, water and sewer are available to the district although they 
do not all penetrate all parts of the area at the present. For example, sewer 
service is available at the northwest corner of Archer Road and along 34th 
Street but does not extend down Archer Road. The area is one of the few 
industrial sites outside the City where all utilities are available to at least 
parts of the district. 
Conclusion 

This district possesses some of the most favorable attributes of any 
industrial location in the urban area. The freeway (1-75) is perhaps most 
important. In addition, however, it has good proximity to the University and 
Medical Center, which could provide some of the stimulus for attracting new 
industry. 

The adjacent freeway is important from another standpoint. Many 
industries today have discovered an added benefit to a location adjoining 
and facing a freeway, that is, an attractive plant with sensible signs in 
good tase are good advertising. This is an attribute which should not be overlooked. 

-67- 



The immediacy of the district to the University is not an unmixed 
blessing. It has resulted in severecompetition from developers of residences 
who also desire locations near the University, particularly mobile home 
developers. There have already been requests for rezonings away from 
industrial, and pressure will no doubt continue. With the residences also 
comes service commercial. These uses may well conflict with the development 
of a modern industrial district as the earlier discussion had indicated. 

In summary, it is recommended that this district be reserved for 
industrial use and that it be expanded to include all undeveloped land 
within the boundaries set forth on the map. 
Industrial District "F" 

Industrial district "F" is located north of the city limits of Gainesville, 
north-northeast of US 441 . The district is about 78 percent vacant. The 
developed land includes 42 acres of industrial and wholesale/warehousing, 
most of which is of a very low intensity character. The largest industry 
is the Gainesville Livestock Association. Other uses include two fuel 
storage operations and an auto salvage operation. There is about 17 
acres of residential use in the district. 



-68- 



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-69- 



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Physiographic Characteristics 

Like most of the soils in the northern part of the urban area, this 
district contains mostly a combination of Groups III and V. These soils 
have some poor drainage characteristics, particularly in Group V. The 
Group III soils have poor percolation which results in much standing 
water during periods of rainy weather . The Group V soils have much 
more severe limitations of the same nature. There is a small pocket 
of Group I soils, which are the best soils in the urban area, in the 
southern part of the district. The topography of this district is almost 
flat. This presents no problems except in draining the area. 
Zoning 

All but about 12 acres of this district is zoned MP. In fact about 
92 percent of the area is zoned for industrial. As discussed in earlier 
districts (See District "A"), this is the best industrial classification from 
the standpoint of development of homogeneous, industrial areas. About 203 
acres out of the 264 zoned MP are vacant. 
Transportation 

The district is well located with respect to several transportation 
or circulation facilities. The airport is directly connected by N 53rd Avenue 
and is less than 3 miles away. Interstate 75 (at 39th Avenue) is about 7 
miles west and US 441, a 4 lane highway, borders the length of the district. 
Thus circulation to the freeway, to the major commercial areas- the Mall 
and the Central Business District, and large residential areas (at least 

-71- 



single family) is all quite good. The railroad also borders the district 

along its length. 

Utilities 

The district is traversed by a major water distribution main along 
N 53rd Avenue. No sewers presently serve the area but plans have been 
drawn for eventual extension from the south, when the demand arises. 
Electricity is available in the district. 
Conclusions 

While this district has some poor soils, much of it is vacant and 
suited for industrial development of a reasonable intensity, provided 
proper drainage is feasible. The area has good transportation links 
with the outside of the urban area, and although it is located on the 
northern edge, reasonable good connectors within the urban area. 
Scattered Industrial Sites 

In addition to the six industrial districts discussed previously, there 
is another 190.23 acres, more or less, zoned for industry in scattered 
locations throughout the urban area. In total about 108 of the 190 acres 
or 56.6 percent is vacant. Twenty six acres are used for industrial - 
wholesale/warehousing operations, and a greater amount (about 29 acres) 
is used for residential, commercial, and offices, with public, railroads 
and right-of-ways making up the rest. Several of these sites should be 
considered spot zones. (For assistance in locating these sites please refer 
to the Existing Industrial Zoning Map). 



-72- 



Site 1 . This industrial zone is located along the railroad right-of-way and W 
6th Street, north and south of the University Avenue. In total some 15.98 
acres are zoned industrial, but only 1 .25 acres is actually used for industry - 
wholesale/warehousing with 6.44 acres in commercial and offices, and 6.46 
in bus terminals, railroad use and etc. Less than an acre is still considered 
vacant and unused. 
Site 2. The second site considered is located on the east side of Waldo Road 



and the adjacent railroad tracks, north of 8th Avenue. The district contains 
19.66 acres of MS zoned property, only one acre of which is actually developed 
for that use. In total 16.3 acres or 83 percent of the area is vacant. The soils 
of the whole areawee classified under Group III, which sometimes indicates 
drainage problems can be present but development is usually not completely 
prohibited. The area is bordered by a major thoroughfare and a railroad spur, 
giving it adequate overall circulation. 

Site 3. This site is occupied by the Florida Fryers Company. The size 

of the site is just under 1 1 acres. The Soil Suitability map reveals that the 
soil is classified in Group I, which has excellent development potential. It 
is zoned MS and while located on a major thoroughfare, it is on the opposite 
side of the urban area from the freeway. A large area immediately north of the 
site is used for a sand quarry. 

Site 4. Site 4 is located on Archer Road south of the University. It contains 
some 26.8 acres of land, about one third of which is still vacant. About seven 
acres were classified industrial - wholesale/warehousing in the land use survey, 



-73- 



although other developed properties are similar in character to industry. 
These include gas and electric utilities and a tractor sales firm. While 
there is a small wet depression just behind the property on the south side 
of Archer Road, most of the area contains good Group I soils. Archer Road 
provides access to a major thoroughfare and the railroad serves the property. 
Site 5. This is a triangular shaped parcel of land which was isolated by the 
freeway (1-75) from a much larger tract discussed earlier as district "E". It 
contains about 18 acres in area and is vacant except for a residence on the 
property. Because it did not appear to be a logical addition to district "E" 
and was likely not be recommended on the Industrial Land Use Plan, it was 
not included with the larger district. In character, however, the site is 
made up of all Group I soils, is on a major thoroughfare, and adjoins a major 
freeway, although it has no direct access to it. The property is zoned MP. 
Site 6. Site 6 is a single rectangular parcel located south of Archer Road, 
south of Lake Kanapaha. It contains about 3.67 acres in area and is believed 
to be vacant. The soil is classified in Group II. Electricity is the only 
public utility available to the site, and the site is located about one half 
mile from a major road in a basically rural area. The property is zoned MS. 
Site 7. This site is located on Archer Road immediately south of Arredondo 
Estates. It contains about 67 acres but only about 20 are actually used. The 
basic use is a manufacturer of large water tanks. The soil is all classified 
in Group II, which is suitable for building. The site has access to Archer 
Road, but the railroad tracks which formerly adjoined the site have been removed, 

-74- 



The parcel is located in a basically rural, sparcely developed area except 

for the growing mobile home development across Archer Road. The site 

is zoned MP. 

Site 8. This site is located primarily along NW 19th Avenue behind the 

Gainesville Shopping Center. It is made up of several parcels totaling 

some 14 acres in all. The predominate land use according to the land use 

classification manual is commercial, but most of the commercial uses are 

somewhat industrial in their character, such as a lumber dealer and a feed 

store. Less than three acres are actually classified as industrial - wholesale/ 

warehousing in the land use survey. Approximately 2.39 acres are still 

vacant. The soils in the area are good, the location advantageous for 

wholesale/warehousing operations which serve nearby commercial, and all 

utilities are available. The land is zoned MS. 

Site 9. Site 9 is actually three small parcels zoned MP west of Hawthorne 

Road near the junction of SR 26. The parcels contain less than two acres 

in total. According to the land use survey about one acre is used for industrial, 

about one half acre for a residence and the remaining vacant. The parcels 

must be considered spot zoned by their size and location. The soils of the 

area are Group III. None of the three parcels are adjacent to a major road. 



-75- 



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PROPOSED INDUSTRIAL LAND USE PLAN 
Introduction 

The preceding section regarding the existing industrial picture in the 
Gainesville Urban Area revealed that there were some 2,800 acres of vacant 
property now zoned for industry. It was estimated that in 1967 that the average 
number of employees per acres was about 12. If the remaining vacant acreage 
now zoned were developed at this density it would support 33,600 workers. 
Projections of the number of resident employees in various industry categories 
were contained in the Economic Base Study. The total for 1980 in Manufacturing, 
Wholesale Trade and Construction, many of whose workers would ordinarily be 
found in industrial districts, was 10,091. (Note: this total was for resident 
employment, which is a measurement of the employment of the residents of a 
given area, as opposed to other labor force counts which may include communters 
andor workers who hold more than one job, and consequently are counted more 
than once). At the rate of only 12 employees per acre, the prevailing ovo all ratio 
found in the survey in this study,a total of 840 acres would be required. This 
would not be in addition to the acreage in use now however, as these same three 
categories already had 7,265 employees in 1967. Thus the net projected gain 
is 2,826 employees, which would need 218.8 acres based on this rate. A much 
higher ratio is expected as urbanization continues. 

Three major goals for industrial development were presented in the earlier 
report on goals: These are: 

1 . Enough industry to meet industrial employment needs. As the above 



-77- 



discussion clearly points out, there is unquestionably enough land now 
zoned to meet any forseeable need for industrial development in the future. 

2. Adequate Supply of Suitable Industrial Land. Again, it has been 
established that an adequate supply is now available; it's suitability was 
also discussed in the previous sections. While clearly not all land now 
zoned is suitable for use, only a fairly small fraction of the total land is 
completely unusable. Unquestionably an adequate supply is available. 

3. Minimization of Industrial Blight and the Blighting Effects of Industries 
on Their Neighbors. Emphasis in this plan has been placed on this goal. 
This is accomplished by recommending cutbacks where appropriate and/or 
"rounding off" of industrial land where such action would tend to encourage 
a better land use relationship between differing uses; and by hereby strongly 
recommending the pursuit and implementation of those desirable standards 
discussed earlier in this report under the section on Industrial Promotion and/or 
the Selection of New Industry. 

Summary of Plan Recommendations 
It is recognized that there are at least three basic types of industrial uses. 
These are warehousing/wholesale type of operations, manufacturing or processing 
industry, and non-manufacturing industry such as heavy construction types of land 
uses. In addition there are certain retail or commercial uses which by their nature 
might be better located in an industrial district than in a commercial zone. Such 
uses might include heavy automotive repair, lumber and building supply stores and etc. 

-78- 



The present zoning ordinance now gives some tacit recognition to the 
existence of different levels of industrial use by the establishment of two 
industrial zones, one called local service industrial and one called manufacturing. 
This is somewhat parallel to the practice in many communities of classifying industry 
as "light" and "heavy". In practice here both types of uses have been 

indiscriminately located in either zone. Because of this fact, most of the districts 
outlined on the plan are simply labeled industrial. However, in a few instances 
on the plan a purely wholesale/warehousing district is recommended. It is felt 
that such locations would be inappropriate for most manufacturing operations. 

In total 2,897 acres of land are included in the plan, 2,828 acres in the 
industry classification and 69 acres in the wholesale/warehousing district. About 
2,261 acres of this land is vacant and available for use, with 25 of these in the 
wholesale/warehousing districts. 

With respect of specific districts the following is recommended. 

District A 
A cutback from the original district is recommended in the plan for the 
area located west of Waldo Road, South of N 53rd Avenue. Recent rezonings 
for mobile homes at the northern edge of this (the eliminated) section and to the 
West, plus the golf course and expected residential development around same, 
have reduced the potential of this section for industrial use. The district remains 
the largest single concentration for industrial use in the urban area. 



-79- 



District B 
No changes in the present configuration of the district were recommended. 
The district contains 237 acres, 164 of which are vacant. 

District C 
The property on the east side of the railroad tracks was cut back north and 
south of W. 16th Avenue. This is due to the certain incompatibility sure to result 
from the intermix of industrial traffic with that of the adjacent residential and 
elementary school. Already a good deal of non-local traffic utilizes NW 2nd 
Street getting back and forth to the telephone company and the Tassanari Building. 
Further industrial development of this property on this side street could only intensify 
this problem. Low density apartment use is recommended as an alternative use. 
The new district contains about 232 acres, 102 of which are vacant. 

District D 
The most important change in the configuration of District D is a recommendation 
that the industry along the south side of SW 16th Avenue be removed . While it is 
recognized that a problem exists in this area with regards the sewer plant and its odors 
it is felt that these are no more serious than the potential conflict between the high 
quality single family residential to the south and industry adjacent to same. As a 
compromise it is recommended that a narrow but adequate buffer of very low density 
apartments be included between the industry on the north side of 16th and the 
single family further south. 

-80- 






Other recommended changes include the rounding off of the industrial 
district along the proposed southward extension of 6th Street, and the inclusion 
of the municipal power plant into the district. The latter by its nature is an 
industrial type of use regardless of its public ownership. The revised district 
will contain 124 acres of vacant land, with 296 acres in total in this district. 

District E 

This district represents both the urban areas best potential for industrial 
development in the future as well as the greatest potential for conversion to some 
other use. As was pointed out in the earlier discussion of the district, the area 
has several distinct advantages, the most important being its location with respect 
to the freeway. This today is more important to most light industry than access to 
other modes of transportation. 

On the other hand because of its nearness to the University the district is 
subject to heavy pressure for development in other uses, particularly mobile homes. 
In addition, much of the frontage is zoned for commercial uses, not to mention the 
fact that the industrial zone itself allows such uses. Thus there is a distinct danger 
that perhaps the best future industrial district will be lost to the uncontrolled spread of 
other uses. 

It is urged that the district boundaries be amended to zone all of the area 
industrial, and that the MP classification be amended to exclude all but the 
essential non-industrial uses in the category. An exception to this general policy 
would be allowance of offices in the district, which would be in keeping with 
the "research park" type of industrial, which should be encouraged in this location 



-81- 



due to its proximity to the University. This would also allow for the ultimate 
conversion of the strip of small multiple family structure now located between 
Archer Road and the Railroad tracks to some type of office use which would 
have a better chance for long term existence in that location. 

The characteristics of the district were noted in the earlier discussion. 
Generally speaking there is adequate room for substantial development on 
good sites in this district. A total of about 562 acres of vacant land is 
included in this district, which contains 673 acres in total. 

District F 
This district is located on the north east side of US 441 near the terminus of 
NW 13th Street. Probably the district evolved around or from the livestock auction 
facility which is located therein. The continued existence of this, plus the other 
industrial uses in the area, dictate the continuance of the industrial district, 
but it is recommended that no enlargement of the district be permitted other than 
a small "rounding off". In addition to some marginal physiographic characteristics 
in the area, it is believed that no expansion (in this or any other industrial areas) 
will be necessary to provide a more than adequate supply of industrial land. 
Enlargement is likely only to encourage the proliferation of marginal and non- 
industrial types of uses along the highway, especially if the zoning district 
regulations are not amended to make them truely "industrial" zones. The 
district contains about 214 acres of vacant land and 275 acres in total. 

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Scattered Industrial Sites 
Several scattered sites have been spot zoned over the years to accommodate 
particular uses. For the most part these have been located out in the semi -rural 
fringe where their presence was not injurious to surrounding development. As 
the area continues to develop, however, increased friction can be expected 
between such uses and spreading residences. It is therefore recommended that 
such sites not be allowed to become the cornerstone on which a larger district 
is built. Most of these sites are not included in the proposed land use plan. 

General Plan Recommendations 
As could be deciphered from the above discussion no large expansion 
in terms of land area has been recommended in this proposed plan . Most of 
the available sites are reasonably located and the supply is more than sufficient 
to meet the forseeable needs. However, one very important need for change 
clearly stand out: Industrial districts must be made more attractive if new 
industry to expand the economic base of the community is to be attracted to 
locate here. Industry is a legimate land use in itself, deserving of the same 
exclusive zoning which promotes harmony and compatibility as any other type 
of land use. It is strongly urged therefore that zoning changes be made to 
recognize this vital fact about modern industry. 

A second important consideration is that not all locations outlined on the 
plan are considered suitable for manufacturing uses. Therefore, certain districts 
are shown as purely wholesale/warehousing operations. A certain amount of 
such uses are necessary in locations with close and good communication with the 

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major commercial districts that these uses serve. However, wholesale/ 
warehousing uses have not traditionally presented the best appearance. 
It is urged that particular care be taken in the implementation of these districts 
through zoning, that standards which will protect surrounding areas are included 
in the regulations. 

Finally, it should be recognized that not all industrial uses would be 
appropriate in all districts. Generally speaking, it may be concluded that 
only the so called "light industrial '.' uses are desired by Community. This 
would seem to be the consensus reached from the earlier goals discussions. 
Nevertheless there are several existing heavy industries in the urban area, 
such as Koppers, the meat processing plants, and heavy construction firms, 
and there is likely to be additional demands for such uses in the future. 

Because these uses could have a negative influence on certain light, 
research type industries, it is recommended that two categories of industry 
be established, in addition to wholesale/warehousing. It is further recommended 
that industrial districts A, B, and E be restricted to the "lighter" category, with 
districts C and D divided into zones providing or separation between the 
light and heavy types, and of course recognizing those heavy uses which now 
exist. This should be accomplished by the drafting of new zoning district 
boundaries. 



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PROPOSED 



INDUSTRIAL 



LAND USE 



PLAN 



GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT GAINESVILLE , FLORIDA 1969 



^r *«iO^ 



APPENDIX A 

Sources 

t . City of Gainesville, Department of Community Development, Planning 
Division Reports: 

a. Physiographic Survey, April, 1967 

b. Planning Unit Study 

c. Population Study 

d. Community Facilities and Recreation Study, May, 1968 

e. Economic Base Study 

f. Land Use Analysis 

g. Commercial Study 

2. Mace, Ruth L., Industry and City Government , Institute of Government, 
University of North Carolina, 1963. 

3. Pasma, Theodore K., Organized Industrial Districts, A Tool for Community 
Development, Washington: Area Development Division, U. S. Department 
of Commerce, 1954, p.l. 

4. McKeever, Ross J., editor, The Community Builders Handbook, Urban Land 
Institute, 1968. 

5. Boley, Robert E., Industrial Districts Principles in Practice, Technical 
Bulletin No. 44, Urban Land Institute, December 1962. 

6. Gold, Robert, Problem of Providing Land for Industry in the South Bend- 
Mishawaka Area^ August, 1959. 

7. Alachua County Tax Assessor, special computer print out, April, 1968. 

8. Florida Industrial Commission, Wages and Employment - First Quarter, 
1967, and supplement by a telephone survey. 

9. Telephone survey to industries. 



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APENDIX B 
Physoigraphic Suitability 

Examination of the Generalized Soil Suitability map, which is not 
intended as a substitute for an on-site inspection, shows six groups of soil 
with varying suitability for urban development. 
Group Characteristics 

I Good natural drainage and low shrink -swell 

potentials. Bearing value is good with at 
least sixty inches between the surface of 
these soils and the Ocala limestone. 

Best suited for urban development - residential 
commercial, industrial of all kinds. 

II Possess all favorable characteristics as soils 

in Group 1 except that they have very shallow 
profiles ranging from 35 to 50 inches in depth. 
Extremely hard layer of chert sometimes caps 
the underlying Ocala limestone making utility 
placement costly. Suitable for commercial and 
industrial development where deep foundations are 
not required. 

III The principal limitation is wetness. Water table 

near the surface nearly the entire year with standing 
water during the wet season. Slow percolation rate. 

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Low intensity development is possible. 

IV Soils in this group have two major limitations: 

1) poor to very poor natural drainage - water 
table at or near surface of these soils nearly 
the entire year. 2) Soils have a high shrink - 
swell potential. Expensive to drain and unsuitable 
for even low intensity development in some cases. 

V These soils have very poor drainage. Standing 

water during rainy season. Water table never 
more than a few inches below the surface. Peat 
must be removed and the area refilled to permit 
urban development since the bearing value of 
these soils is very low. Expensive to drain and 
develop and unsuitable in many cases for even low 
intensity development. 

VI Subject to flooding. Soils have no value for urban 

development except for recreational purposes and 
open space. 



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